The ESS evaluated in the EDAB testbed is the EnerDel Type I EV, which is designed for a small EV sedan. This evaluation was completed in December 2013 with an accumulation of 27,880 miles and a total throughput of 45,767 Ah. The pack is lithium-ion chemistry comprised of a mixed-oxide cathode and amorphous hard carbon anode. The pack has 384 cells (96 in series, four strings in parallel), and each cell has a maximum voltage (at 100% SOC) of 4.1 V, a minimum voltage of 2.5 V (at 0% SOC), and a rated capacity of 17.5 Ah (at a C/3 rate). The pack has a maximum voltage of 393.6 V, a nominal voltage of 345.6 V, and a rated capacity and energy of 70 Ah and 23 kWh, respectively. The ESS enclosure is sealed, meaning that there is no thermal management system (TMS); therefore, cooling or heating of the ESS can only be accomplished by heat conduction through the ESS enclosure assisted by forced air over the enclosure. The ESS uses controller area network (CAN) for communication with the vehicle controls systems.